Vocational education and training (VET) systems in modern, advanced societies aim at developing a level of competences suitable to provide a high-qualified workforce in the various sectors of the economy. Given the growing diversity of learners VET programmes have to be flexible in order to allow a high degree of individualization with regard to the characteristics of the learner. One approach to consider in this context are modularised curricula. They are characterised by a high degree of flexibility but lack the development of advanced competences. Conversely, holistic VET systems are supposed to create advanced competences but provide less flexibility. Against this background, this paper moves from an analytical to a design perspective and addresses the following two research questions:Can modularised VET systems be designed to overcome their alleged deficiencies and create advanced competences?Can holistic VET systems be modularised to become more flexible for dealing with heterogeneous learners without losing their assumed advantages of developing advanced competences?