Portrait of Rome's first emperor
Gold, 5.2 cm diameter
Gold thrymsas, c.12mm diameter
Ancient Aegean weights and measures
Black chalk with corrections in white chalk, Italian


Powhatan's Mantle

Southern Chesapeake Bay region, Virginia, United States of America
Leather, shell and sinew

It was within the territory of a chiefdom of more than 30 tribes, united under the leadership of the powerful paramount chief Wahunsunacock (d. 1618), that the colony of Jamestown was established in Virginia in 1607. This remarkable object dates to this first period of contact between native North American peoples and English colonists.

Once thought to have been a mantle (cloak), it is now considered to have been more likely a hanging consisting of four white-tailed deer hides that have been trimmed and sewn together with sinew. The elaborate shell beadwork decoration consists of a central standing figure, flanked by two opposed four-legged animals in profile that have been interpreted as a mountain lion or a wolf and a white-tailed deer. The circles may represent settlements and the tribes of the chiefdom.

The mantle is listed in the 1656 catalogue of the Tradescant Collection – the founding collection of the Ashmolean – as: ‘Pohatan, King of Virginia’s habit all embroidered with shells, or Roanoke’. Chief Wahunsunacock was known to the English as ‘Chief Powhatan’, after whom the mantle is named. There is no known record of how or when it was acquired by the Tradescants. It might have been collected during a trip to Virginia by the younger John Tradescant in 1637, or it could have been obtained earlier. Among the most widely accepted theories for its origins is that it may have been one of the gifts recorded as being presented by Chief Wahunsunacock to Captain Christopher Newport in 1608 for King James I.

You can see it on display in Gallery 2 on the Lower Ground Floor.

Southern Chesapeake Bay region, Virginia, United States of America
c. 1600–38
Leather, shell and sinew
235 x 160 cm